A LIST OF BRITISH RIVERS
About a hundred in number, contained in old Icelandic alliterative memorial verses (inscribed
á-heiti, i.e. names of rivers) from MSS. of the Snorra-Edda (ii. 479, 480, of the 13th century; the verses themselves may well be of the 12th century). Most of these rivers seem to belong to the northern Scottish counties, Caithness, Ross, Moray, Sutherland, and to the north-east of England. As specimens of an attempt at identification we add about thirty names, half for Scotland and half for England, leaving the rest open. In Scotland, Örmt, Armet W.; Sekin, Shin R.; Dyrn, Durn W.; Mein, Mein W.; Skialg, Shallag W.; Nis, Ness R.; Ekla or Ekkjall, Oykill R.; Spæ, Spey R.; Nið, Nith R.; Þöll, Thuil R.; Dyna, Don R.; Njörn, Nairn R.; Bro, Brora R.; Maura, Strath More; Apardion, Aberdeen (here used of the river). In England, Tems, Thames R.; Humra, Humber R.; Dun, Don R.; Alin, Alne R.; Svöl, Swale R.; Usa, Ouse R.; Þyn, Tyne R.; Tvedda, Tweed R.; Lodda, Ludd R.; Ver, Wear R.; Ruðr, Rother R.; Ró, Rye R.; Hrið, Reed R.; Myn, Maun R.; Mynt, Mint R. (Johnston). A few (ten or twelve) of the rivers in the verses are of other countries, being probably added for alliteration sake, e.g. Jordan, Tiber, Euphrates, Albis, Loire; these we have omitted. Some of these names also occur in old lays (Gm., Bm., Gs., Hkv.), and this list may thus afford a hint as to the age of these poems.
Ekla (Ekkjall, Orkn.)
Hrönn (twice), Gm.
Njörn (emend. mrn, Cod.)
Ogn (?), Hkv.
Strauma or Skrauma (?).
Usa, Fms. vi.
Veg (Veg-svinn in one word, Gm.)
Vina (twice), Gm., also in Egils S.
Vind (Vönd, Gm.)
Þjóð (Þjóð-numa in one word, Gm.)
GAELIC NAMES AND NICKNAMES
Contained in the Landnama-bók (Icelandic Book of Settlement); those in the Orkn. and the Njála are left out, as being already well known. The translation and identification we leave to Celtic scholars, only noticing that these names, as well as those of the rivers above, were taken from oral tradition, not from books; the Norse form may therefore throw some light on the Celtic pronunciation of the 10th to the 12th centuries.
Biolan, 95, 268: Biola, 41, 239.
Briann or Brann, 30.
Dimun, the island, 104, a double-peaked island in Broadfirth, Iceland, and in the Faroes (Lat.-Gaelic, qs. Dimons?).
Dufgus, 136; whence corrupted Dugfúss.
Duf-þakr, 33, 282.
Fyls-(enni), 126 ; the former part may be Gaelic, cp. fyls-bein, Fms. ix. 54.
Gellir = Gilli (?), in the name of Thord Gelli.
Grelöð (?), 109.
Gufa (?), doubtful if Gaelic.
Kaðall, 116, 219.
Kali (?), 331.
Kiallakr, 79, passim.
Kiarvalr, 298, 361, passim.
Kimbi (?), 100, prob. Gaelic.
Kolli, passim; we suspect this name, so freq. in Icel. local names, to be of Gaelic extraction.
Konall, 65, passim.
Kormakr, 73, and Korm. S.
Kylan, 65, 66.
Meldun, 109, 113.
Parak, 267 (?).
Patrekr, 42 (Lat.-Gaelic).